谈听力保健和听力康复

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据统计,中国有超过2000万听力残疾人,占所有残疾人中的第一位。听力损伤可能由多种原因引起,最坏的情况下可能会出现声音嘶哑。早期发现,早期诊断和早期治疗是挽救听力的唯一有效手段。因此,听力保健和听力康复不仅是耳鼻喉科医务人员的责任,而且一般公众也应该了解相关知识。

根据听力损失的时间,它在医学上分为先天性和后天性耳聋。出生时耳聋是由于遗传,基因突变或母亲在怀孕期间感染病毒引起的先天性痰,服用耳毒性药物(链霉素,青大,假名和阿米卡星,氨基糖苷类抗生素,阿司匹林,奎宁等)引起的异常发育胎儿外耳,中耳或内耳的任何部位,以及分娩时的难产,导致缺氧,分娩伤或母婴Rh因子不相容。表明婴儿出生后对声音没有反应。正常婴儿出生后会有转身,眨眼,停止吸吮等感觉。一般来说,他们在6个月后开始模仿成人发声。当他们1岁时,他们可以制作单音节词。在1岁半到2岁之后,他们开始发送双倍。音节词。如果孩子缺乏这些正常的语言技能,应该引起父母的注意。

有些儿童在生长过程中患有感冒,脑膜炎,腮腺炎,麻疹,风疹,水痘和其他疾病后可能会听力丧失。他们通常对声音不敏感而且反应迟钝,例如在看电视时,音量往往很高。家长应该保持警惕,并应及时去耳鼻喉科诊所。此外,5-12岁的儿童如有夜间打鼾,口呼吸,或鼻塞,流涎等症状,也应到医院检查是否有腺样体肥大或鼻炎,因为此类疾病常可引起咽鼓管口腔阻塞和继发性中耳炎会导致听力丧失。

The causes of acquired deafness include ear disease such as ear canal embolism, otitis media, otosclerosis, ear tumor, etc. sinusitis, herpes zoster and other viral infections, head trauma, aminosteroid antibiotics, cisplatin and other antineoplastic agents. Intracranial tumors, allergies, and autoimmune diseases such as certain diuretics, acoustic neuromas, and meningioma can cause hearing loss. As human lifespan increases, deafness is often one of the symptoms of the elderly. In addition, the noise caused by the Walkman, karaoke, gun shooting, firecrackers, etc. can also cause hearing loss and hearing loss. People with abnormalities such as high blood pressure, high blood fat, and high blood sugar should pay special attention to hearing, especially those with bad habits such as smoking. Tinnitus, dizziness and other symptoms are often early signs of hearing loss. If the hearing suddenly drops, especially with symptoms such as dizziness, it is likely to have sudden deafness, and should go to the hospital in time to avoid delay in treatment.

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